Dental Braces


Dental braces are wire-based appliances that orthodontists use to correct crowded and misaligned teeth or jaws. Many people who need dental braces get them during their early teenage years, but adults also can benefit from wearing braces. The goal of dental braces is to properly align your teeth and jaws to produce an even bite and pleasing smile.

Modern materials and technologies make the experience of having dental braces much more comfortable than in the past.

Why it's done

Dental braces offer corrective treatment for:

  • Overcrowded or crooked teeth
  • Too much space between teeth
  • Upper front teeth that overlap the lower teeth too much — either vertically (overbite) or horizontally (overjet)
  • Upper front teeth that bite behind the lower ones (underbite)
  • Other jaw misalignment problems that cause an uneven bite

Proper alignment of your teeth and jaws may improve not only the appearance of your teeth but also the health of your mouth and the way you bite, chew and speak.

Adults and braces

If you're an adult with braces, you may need to wear them longer than a younger person would, but they can still produce similar results — for example, to correct crooked teeth or a misaligned jaw. Because your facial bones are no longer growing, however, there may be some problems that can't be corrected with braces alone.


Wearing dental braces is generally a very safe procedure. However, there are some risks.

Short-term risks

Braces create tiny spaces around your teeth that can trap food particles and promote bacteria-filled plaque deposits. Failure to remove deposits of food and plaque can lead to:

  • Loss of minerals in your teeth's outer enamel surface, which can leave permanent whitish stains on your teeth
  • Tooth decay (cavities) and gum disease

Long-term risks

Long-term risks may include:

  • Shorter root lengths. During tooth movement, some of the bone in the path of the moving tooth dissolves, while new bone is laid behind it. Permanent loss of tooth root length may occur during this process, which could lead to less stable teeth. In most cases, however, this doesn't cause any problems.
  • Loss of correction. If you don't follow your orthodontist's instructions carefully after your braces are removed, particularly when it comes to wearing a device called a retainer, you may lose some of the correction gained while wearing your braces.

Reduce your risk of damage

To reduce the risk of damaging your teeth and braces:

  • Cut down on sugary and starchy foods, which substantially contribute to plaque formation and tooth decay.
  • Brush carefully, preferably after every meal, with fluoride toothpaste and a soft-bristled brush. If you can't brush your teeth after your meal, rinse your mouth out with water.
  • Rinse thoroughly to get all particles out of your braces. Check in the mirror to make sure your teeth are clean.
  • Use a fluoride rinse when recommended by your dentist or orthodontist.
  • Floss between braces and under wires with the help of a floss threader. Your orthodontist also may recommend a small flexible toothbrush to clean between braces and wires.
  • Avoid sticky foods — such as chewing gum, chewy candies, caramel and taffy — that can pull off brackets, bands and wires.
  • Avoid hard foods — such as ice, hard candies, popcorn and nuts — that can break parts of your braces.
  • Visit your dentist for checkups and cleaning as often as your dentist recommends, to keep your teeth and gums healthy.
  • Follow instructions — lack of compliance can extend the time needed for completion and increase the chance of complications.

How you prepare

Most alignment problems become apparent once the permanent teeth begin to come through the gum (erupt). But your orthodontist may recommend waiting until enough teeth have come through before applying braces. Most children get braces between the ages of 8 and 14, while their facial bones are still growing and their teeth are easier to move.

Preparation for braces generally involves:

  • Oral exam. Consists of a full exam of your teeth, jaws and mouth.
  • X-rays. You'll get a series of X-rays to determine the position of teeth. The most common is the panoramic X-ray, which shows all the upper and lower teeth in biting position and any teeth still developing within the jaws. Special head X-rays also may help determine the size, position and relationship of jaws to teeth.
  • Plaster models. You'll bite into soft material, which remains on your teeth for a few minutes. From this impression, a plaster model of your teeth (dental cast) is created to evaluate your bite. In some cases, this dental cast may be scanned into a digital format for further evaluation or treatment decisions.
  • Potential tooth extraction. If your mouth is very overcrowded, it may require to remove one or more permanent teeth to allow room for the remaining teeth to fit comfortably.
  • Other procedures. In severe cases, where tooth movement alone will not correct a bite that's significantly out of alignment, jaw surgery is required in combination with orthodontics.

After your teeth and jaws has been evaluated, a customizes treatment plan will be created for you. This most often involves the use of fixed braces, which are temporarily bonded to your teeth.

What you can expect

Treatment consists of three phases: the initial placement of the braces, periodic adjustments and wearing of a retainer after the braces are removed.

Placement of braces

Fixed braces typically consist of these components:

Brackets attached to the outside surfaces of the teeth. Or they can be attached to the backside of teeth, hiding them from view, but this makes them a bit harder to access. Brackets can be made of stainless steel, ceramic (clear or tooth-colored) or other materials. Modern metal brackets are smaller and less noticeable than they used to be.

Ring-like bands that encircle the molar teeth. Before bands are applied, space is created by placing very small rubber bands (spacers) between the molar teeth. Bands are made of stainless steel or titanium. A buccal tube attached to the band of the last molar holds the end of the connecting wire in place.

A flexible wire that connects all of the brackets and bands, controlling movement of the teeth.

Various accessories to help position the teeth, in addition to the fixed components. Small rubber bands (elastic ties) secure the wire to the brackets. Larger rubber bands also may be used to help move teeth. Headgear (usually worn at night) may be used to help hold or move teeth into the correct position.

Periodic adjustments

After fixed braces are placed on your teeth, teeth are adjust periodically by tightening or bending the interconnecting wires. This puts mild pressure on the teeth and gradually shifts them into new positions. The jaw responds to the pressure by dissolving bone in the path of the moving tooth and laying down new bone behind it.

Occasionally, tension may be use between the upper and lower jaws to help promote correct alignment. This is often done with elastic bands stretched between opposing teeth.

Your teeth and jaws may feel slightly sore for a day or two after an adjustment. This discomfort can usually be eased with an over-the-counter pain reliever. If discomfort worsen, call and schedule an appointment.


Retainers are usually removable, but may be fixed. Or a combination of fixed and removable may be used. After dental braces are removed, the newly straightened teeth need to be stabilized for a period of time to prevent them from shifting back to their original position. This is accomplished with the use of a custom-made appliance-retainer made of plastic or plastic and metal wires that help teeth stay in place.

By Mayo Clinic Staff